In HIV positive people the virus is present in the following bodily fluids:
- semen and pre-cum
- rectal fluids and anal mucus
- vaginal fluids
- breast milk
Someone already living with HIV may pass the virus to someone who isn’t in the following ways:
- Unprotected (sex without a condom) vaginal or anal sex
- Sharing injecting equipment
- To a baby during pregnancy, childbirth or breast feeding. However, this is extremely rare in the UK because pregnant women are tested for HIV during ante-natal care. If a woman is found to be HIV positive, appropriate HIV medication taken regularly during pregnancy will prevent transmission of HIV to her baby.
Transmission of HIV can be prevented by the use of condoms during sexual activity which carries the highest risk.
PrEP stands for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and is the use of HIV medication to prevent someone who is HIV negative from becoming HIV positive during condomless sex. Read more information about PrEP
PEP stands for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and can stop HIV infection after the virus has entered the body. It is not guaranteed to work but has a very high success rate. PEP must be started no later than 72 hours following the exposure to HIV. The drugs must be taken for up to four weeks. PEP is available from Sexual Health Clinics and A&E departments but not from GPs. Read more information about PEP
The virus can only be passed on if the person living with HIV has a ‘detectable’ viral load. This means that the levels of virus in the person’s blood stream are high enough for this to happen.
Someone living with diagnosed HIV and taking medication regularly will eventually reach a point where the virus is ‘undetectable’ in the body.
This does not mean that the virus has been eradicated, but that levels of it are so small that they cannot be detected by standard measurements. In this situation, the risk of the HIV positive person passing the virus to someone else is ZERO.
The most common symptom is a flu like illness one to four weeks after becoming infected. At this stage the body is reacting to HIV and the immune system is trying to fight off the virus.
Other symptoms may include headache, sore throat, stomach upset or a rash.
However, not everyone will have the same symptoms once infected with HIV and some people may have no symptoms at all. Some people may live for years without knowing that they have HIV.
However, it is important not to wait for symptoms to appear in situations where exposure to HIV has occurred but to arrange to be tested.
The only way to know for sure if someone has HIV is to for them to have an HIV test.
Can HIV be treated?
HIV is a treatable medical condition. It is important that HIV is diagnosed as early as possible in order for the treatment to be most effective.
HIV medication is taken daily at regular intervals. The aim of treatment is to stop the virus replicating in the body and to bring its levels down to such a point that it is ‘undetectable’ and cannot be passed on.
HIV treatment is free.
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men are advised to test at least annually for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections – and every three months if having sex with new or casual partners.
Black African men and women are advised to regularly test for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections if having condomless sex with new or causal partners.
Anyone who knows that they have been exposed to HIV or believes that they may have been exposed to HIV should also test.
You can get a HIV test at your GP or a sexual health (GUM) clinic in Liverpool City Region.
Free and confidential testing is also delivered by BHA for Equality across Liverpool if you are Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic residents.
What Does Undetectable equals Untransmittable mean?
HIV is a long-term health condition that is easily manageable with medication. People living with HIV and on treatment can expect to live a normal life span.
HIV treatment effectively reduces the amount of the virus in the body to the point where it cannot be detected.
This means that people who are on effective HIV treatment with an undetectable viral load cannot pass HIV on during sex.
HIV treatment has made huge advances.
However public perceptions and societal knowledge about HIV have not kept up at the same pace. Only 16% of the public are aware of what U=U means*, yet being undetectable is the reality for most people living with HIV in the UK.
We believe that fear around HIV transmission can fuel HIV stigma, and that the U=U message is one of the most powerful ways in which HIV stigma will be defeated.
The science is clear. Undetectable = Untransmittable. U=U
* From National AIDS Trust’s 2021 report ‘HIV: Public Knowledge and Attitudes‘
BHA For Equality
0330 128 1186
Free & confidential sexual health services for Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic communities.
George House Trust
0161 274 4499
Free & confidential support, advice and advocacy services for people living with HIV.
0345 3 30 30 30
Providing advice, support and resources for LGBT people to take control of their sexual health and wellbeing.